Tuesday, June 23, 2020
Caesar Augustus, Hero or Tyrant The Effects of Hindsight on Dio Cassius Portrayal of Caesar - Literature Essay Samples
Jordan Reid BerkowRome of AugustusTF: Brian JobeFebruary 22, 2003Caesar Augustus, Hero or Tyrant?: The Effects of Hindsight on Dio Cassius Portrayal of Caesar Caesar Augustus, during the time of his reign as princeps of the Roman people, cultivated for himself an image of military prowess, generosity, virtue, and clemency. Velleius Paterculus History of Rome, written only a few years after the death of Augustus, paints a picture of the Caesar that one imagines is quite consistent with the way he wished to be portrayed. Dio Cassius History of Rome, written around 229 A.D., presents a very different image, representing Augustus as an uncertain, bullying tyrant. The three ways in which the two authors, in their descriptions of the Battle of Actium, represent Caesars differences most prominently are through his fighting style, his attitude towards his captives, and the attention given to his victory. Through these three vehicles, Velleius and Dio present such radically different vers ions of Caesar Augustus that it is almost impossible to reconcile the two into a coherent image of who the man truly was. Caesars fighting style and character as an opponent are portrayed very differently by Velleius and Dio, with the former presenting Augustus as diplomatic and decisive, and the latter describing him as more of a bullying tyrant than a conquering hero. Velleius opens his description of the Battle of Actium by explicitly stating where his loyalties lie: Caesar and Antonyfought, one for the safety, and the other for the ruin of the world (SB 78). Although numerous sources cast doubt upon Augustus military prowess, Velleius explains Caesars decision to leave the direct action to generals such as Agrippa by stating that Caesar, reserving himself for that part of battle to which fortune might summon him, was present everywhere (SB 78). It was not, then, that Caesar was incapable of fighting at Agrippas level, but rather that he was diplomatically prudent enough to de legate duties when his services would be more effective elsewhere. Dios portrayal of Caesars fighting style could not be more different. In describing Caesars attack on Antonys forces, he uses words such as threatened, provoked and harassed (SB 139). He further casts Augustus as an uncertain and indecisive leader, twice stating that Caesar did not know how to proceed in the face of Antonys tactics (SB 140, 141). Caesars fighting style and leadership capabilities as depicted by Dio, therefore, paint a a far less noble image of the brave and heroic man described in Velleius History. Caesars treatment of Antonys men after his victory is another topic that is treated in radically different ways by Velleius and Dio. Velleius places emphasis to the point of repetitiveness on Caesars clemency a trait that Caesar closely associated with himself, as can be seen in the Res Gestae. Velleius writes that Great clemency was shown in the victory; no one was put to death, and only a few bani shed (SB 78), and shortly thereafter repeats this assertion, writing that It was in keeping with Caesars fortune and his clemency that not one of those who had borne arms against him was put to death by him, or by his order (SB 79). Dio contrarily presents Caesars victory as a terrible tragedy, vividly describing the horrors resulting from Caesars decision to set fire to Antonys ships. While Velleius writes that Caesar shouted to Antonys men that Antony had defected, urging them to surrender, desiring to win over by words those whom he could have slain with the sword (SB 78), Dios account holds no evidence of this aversion to bloodshed. Dio writes of men burned to death, devoured by sea creatures, wounded by missiles, or drowned, and the only men who found a tolerable death in the midst of such horrors were those who agreed to kill each other or who killed themselves (SB 142). After Antonys ships had been completely overtaken, and the survivors had surrendered, Dio writes that Ca esars men eagerly sailed up to Antonys ships in the hope of looting their treasure, busily putting out the fires they had themselves set. As a result many of them perished, the victims of the flames and of their own greed (SB 142). Although these appalling deeds are not directly attributed to Caesar himself, the events, excluded entirely from Velleius description of the Battle of Actium, certainly do not portray a just and forgiving leader, given to great clemency. The third clear difference between Velleius and Dios Caesars lies in the attention paid to the glory bestowed upon Caesar after the Battle of Actium. Dios account ends with the previously described horrors inflicted upon Antonys troops by Caesars corrupt and greedy men. Velleius, however, spends a good deal of time describing the victorious celebrations and general good will experienced upon Caesars return to Rome, and goes on to write about the great benefits conferred upon the Roman people as a result of the vict ory at Actium. Upon Caesars return, writes Velleius, the procession that met him, the enthusiasm of his reception by men of all classes, ages, and ranks, and the magnificence of his triumphs and of the spectacles that he mounted [cannot be described] (SB 80). He underscores Caesars generosity, reporting that in the years following Actium, There [was] nothing that men can desire from the godswhich Augustus, after his return to the city did not bestow upon the state, the Roman people, and the world (SB 80). While Dio focused on the negative consequences of Caesars victory, excluding the purported celebrations, Velleius appears resolved to demonstrate that Caesars win was not only advantageous, but the very will of the gods. As the most obvious discrepancy between these two texts is the elapsed time between the death of Caesar and the era in which the author was writing, it seems likely that with greater distance came a more balanced, less effusive view of the man whose actions wer e so instrumental to the history of Rome. Perhaps, one may conjecture, Velleius closeness in time to Caesars age led him to be unduly influenced by the myth of Augustus, as his parents generation were no doubt direct witnesses to Augustus rule. Whether this closeness provides Velleius with a more accurate viewpoint or clouds his description with an inability to obtain objectivity is, of course, questionable. Dio, with the hindsight conferred by time, was perhaps more able to present an accurate, objective rendition of Caesar Augustus, but he, unlike Velleius, was unable to draw upon first-person accounts of what it was like to live under Caesar. It seems, then, that we are left at a standstill with regards to who the true Caesar Augustus was: A heroic savior, or a vengeful tyrant? Dios decision to focus on Caesars indecisiveness and moral turpitude, and Velleius contrasting determination to convey with absolute clarity Caesars generosity, compassion, clemency, and moral superio rity demonstrate how truly complex, and enigmatic the man was, and how obscure historical truth can be.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
EDAE224 Creative Arts Curriculum Studies 2 Assignment 1: Music Education Word Count: 3197 Key Curriculum Elements word count: 665 Integrating Music into the Curriculum word count: 650 Lesson Plan 1: 502 Lesson Plan 2: 414 Lesson Plan 3: 557 Participation in On-line Forums: 409 Contents Page Title Page 1 Contents Page 2 Key Curriculum Elements Page 3-4 Integrating Music into the Curriculum Page 5-6 Lesson Plan 1 Ã¢â¬â HSIE: Ã¢â¬ËThe EndÃ¢â¬â¢ with Puppet Joe Page 7-9 Lesson Plan 2 Ã¢â¬â HSIE: Mirror Me Page 10-12 Lesson Plan 3 Ã¢â¬â HSIE: Global Environments: Rainforests Page 13-15 Participation in On-line Forums Page 16-17 Reference List Page 18 Appendix 1 Ã¢â¬â Lesson Plan1 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËThe EndÃ¢â¬â¢ Poem PageÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The best teachers can do is to not allow students to see when the students have not meet the expectations they had and when students do not meet their own expectations, the teacher needs to encourage the student to try again and learn from their previous experience; Ã¯ ¶ a lack of space for students to move and experiment is a shame but, a classroom is not the only place that students can learn to create, they can do the basic or the foundation type work in a classroom and then move out into the playground or a hall. One of the best things about music is that it can be created; played; movement; and listened to anywhere there is a desire to enjoy/appreciate it. Some of the things I would hope to achieve in the classroom through the integration of the music curriculum are encouragement of the appreciation of music; knowledge of music and how it can impact ones life; how music can be integrated into everyday life; and no matter who you are you can sing, play instruments, move (dance), compose and listen to music. Integrating Music into the Curriculum HSIE: This Is Me! (Early Stage 1) Activity 1 Ã¢â¬â Puppet Joe teaching the students a poem and some rhythm Ã¢â¬ËThe EndÃ¢â¬â¢ with Puppet Joe, this will be explained in Lesson Plan 1 Activity 2 Ã¢â¬â Mirroring each otherÃ¢â¬â¢sShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Music On Music Education1002 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinstead of practice violin music is proven to make you smarter. When a child particularly at a young age learns how to play an instrument preferably in a social setting is provides the brain of that child with extra dopamine, new neurological connections, better behavior, and higher test scores. Schools are turning to new programs to aid music education and there are many reasons to support their decision. Music has been proven over many studies to show a connection to education. Evidence of this hasRead More Music in Education1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Why Music Is Important To Having A Complete Education nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;With school budget cuts, and no music instruments, more and more people are beginning to realize the benefits of having music in education. Providing music as part of education helps develop intelligence that leads to greater success in school and in life. Everyone from VH1 Save The Music to The National Association For Music Education agree that, Ã¢â¬Å"Every student in the nation should have an education in the artsRead MoreMusic Education And Its Effect On Education1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreferred to a life without music as a mistake (Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ ). Unfortunately, many children never get the opportunity to discover the fulfillment that music can bring to their lives. They are denied this chance by an unfair educational system. Music education is beneficial to the student throughout his entire life, thus it should not be cast aside and neglected as it often is in the public school system today, but instead schools should do just the opposit e; treat music education as a priority. The evidenceRead MoreThe Importance of Music in Education1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFinal Paper The Importance of Music in Education Whether we choose to believe it or not, music is a very present thing in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s day to day lifestyle. From turning on the radio in the morning, to listening to it while grocery shopping, putting in our headphones while we study, music is always there. Music is also extremely underrated, which is why so many public schools are constantly threatening to take away music programs all the time. But why is music education so vital in the growth of studentsRead MoreEssay on Music in Education702 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMusic in Education Music in education is essential to our children because it increases their listening skills and is a common method of communication for cultures worldwide. Music is Education There are schools attempting to eliminate teaching musical arts to our children. The board of education claims they must provide education by concentrating on the basic academic courses, but what they dont realize is that music is a major part of basic education. We must not allowRead MoreMusic And Its Effect On Education Essay1887 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMusic is fascinating because there are so many different uses and styles. It is an enjoyable way to help the brain grow and develop. Plato once said, Ã¢â¬Å"I would teach children music, physics, and philosophy; but most importantly music, for the patterns in music and all the arts are the keys to learning.Ã¢â¬ Music classes should be part of the required core curriculum through all four years of high school; however, some schools donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the money to support these programs, despite the many benefits itRead MoreA Brief History On Two Types Of Music Education1904 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWithin this essay, you shall find a brief history on two types of Music Education, the Suzuki Method; as well as the Dalcroze Method, as well as a breakdown of these methods. Apart from this, you will also find a slight discussion on how I might incorporate these methods, if any, into my own teachings. Suzuki Method The Suzuki Method was created and developed by Violin prodigy, Shinichi Suzuki, after being asked by a colleague if he was able to teach his son. Intrigued, he set out the find outRead MoreKeep Music Education in Schools Essay1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDue to the declining economy, school boards around the country have decided to cut funding to the music education programs. It is necessary to keep music education in the American school system because it enhances the development of skills that children will use for the rest of their lives. Musical development can start as early as before birth. Hearing is the first sense that a baby acquires and it is acquired in utero (McCutcheon 1). The first sounds that a baby hears are the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s voice andRead MoreThe Importance of Music Education Essay951 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagestodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society? Some say that music education is a waste of valuable resources, takes time away from academic subjects, is noisy and distracting, when in reality this is false. Music is a valuable resource that every human being should enjoy. Although our economy has been failing lately, we should not let ourselves believe that the only way to be productive is in a field that makes us unhappy, like computers or science. In AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s recent economic downfall, music education is commonly one of the firstRead MoreThe Benefits of Music Education Essay990 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Benefits of Music Education Due to budget cuts, students all across America are missing an opportunity that could benefit them greatly. Many changes all across America are cutting the fine arts program out of schools. The fine arts program is incredibly important for a child. Children should be exposed to music at a young age to help them succeed as an adult. Music education should be properly funded so they can gain important knowledge and life skills in school. Music benefits kids in multiple
Monday, May 18, 2020
To address the concerns of social justice, while Clark was in office, he helped develop the Board of Social and Ethical Responsibilities of Psychology in 1972 (Pickren, 2002). Though Dr. Kenneth Clark has contributed much more to the world of psychology, he most importantly opened up and investigated racism and the psychological effects it has on children and has helped change the face of education in the process. Dr. Kenneth B. ClarkÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy has lived on and will continue to inspire because, even today, in the 21st century, there are many ideas and problems that Clark addresses in the realm of prejudice and racism that are still relevant in social identity, education and the work place in America. Clark was a social psychologistÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦ClarkÃ¢â¬â¢s theories of racial progression are still at work today and will continue to have a long lasting effect on America. ClarkÃ¢â¬â¢s work on identity and stereotyping has continued and has extended to not onl y minority groups, but to white-Americans and women as well. Research on prejudices and stereotyping has continued in the area of education. According to Steele (2004), the framework of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life can be controlled by their social identity and that individuals must contend to the prejudices and stereotypes that they socially must identify with. Further research suggests that those who are exposed to negative stereotypes are influenced either by believing or mimicking the stereotype or, both (Steele, 2004). Steele (2004) found that stereotypes have contributed to the underperformance of minority groups in the school setting. As suggested by Clark, Steele (2004) also believes that conforming to suggested stereotypes weakens the social identity and brings severe deficits to the ability of student to excel in the classroom. ClarkÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas on stereotyping were elaborated in the notion that stereotype threat does not only affect minority groups, but can exhibit deficits in a ny group of individuals. For instance, Steele (2004) offers the example of white vs. black athletes and how in many sports (e.g. basketball or football) white athletes have shown to feel less competent in comparison to black athletes because ofShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesGlobalization 16 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Managing Workforce Diversity 18 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improving Customer Service 18 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improving People Skills 19 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stimulating Innovation and Change 20 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Coping with Ã¢â¬Å"TemporarinessÃ¢â¬ 20 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Working in Networked Organizations 20 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Helping Employees Balance WorkÃ¢â¬âLife Conflicts 21 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Creating a Positive Work Environment 22 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improving Ethical Behavior 22 Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 23 An Overview 23 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inputs 24 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Processes 25 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Outcomes 25 Summary and Implications for Managers 30 S A L Self-AssessmentRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pages978-0-13-612100-8 1. ManagementÃ¢â¬â-Study and teaching. 2. ManagementÃ¢â¬âProblems, exercises, etc. Kim S. II. Title. HD30.4.W46 2011 658.40071 173Ã¢â¬âdc22 I. Cameron, 2009040522 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ISBN 10: 0-13-612100-4 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-612100-8 B R I E F TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S Preface xvii Introduction 1 PART I 1 2 3 PERSONAL SKILLS 44 Developing Self-Awareness 45 Managing Personal Stress 105 Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively 167 PART II 4 5 6 7 INTERPERSONALRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words Ã |Ã 1186 Pagesof Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Concepts to Text Topics Chapter 1 Modern Project Management Chapter 8 Scheduling resources and cost 1.2 Project defined 1.3 Project management defined 1.4 Projects and programs (.2) 2.1 The project life cycle (.2.3) App. G.1 The project manager App. G.7 Political and social environments F.1 Integration of project management processes [3.1] 6.5.2 Setting a schedule baseline [8.1.4] 188.8.131.52 Setting a resource schedule 184.108.40.206 Resource leveling 7.2 SettingRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words Ã |Ã 702 PagesCollege; Anthony McGann, University of Wyoming; Robert D. Nale, Coastal Carolina University; Robert H. Votaw, Amber University; Don Fagan, Daniel Webster University; Andrew J. Deile, Mercer University; Samuel Hazen, Tarleton State University; Michael B. McCormick, Jacksonville State University; Neil K. Friedman, Queens College; Lawrence Aronhime, John Hopkins University; Joseph Marrocco, Boston University; Morgan Milner, Eastern Michigan University; Souha Ezzedeen, Pennsylvania State UniversityRead MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 PagesChange 2. Images of Managing Change 121 121 147 147 Text 3. Why Organizations Change Text Cohen Ã¢â¬ ¢ Effective Behavior in Organizations, Seventh Edition 14. Initiating Change 174 174 Text iii Cases 221 221 225 The Consolidated Life Case: Caught Between Corporate Cultures WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s in Charge? (The)(Jim)(Davis)(Case) MorinÃ¢ËâJarrell Ã¢â¬ ¢ Driving Shareholder Value I. Valuation 229 229 253 279 1. The ValueÃ¢ËâBased Management Framework: An Overview 2. Why Value Value? 4. The Value Manager Read MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words Ã |Ã 1351 PagesStrategies for market nichers Military analogies and competitive strategy: a brief summary The inevitability of strategic wear-out (or the law of marketing gravity and why dead cats only bounce once) The influence of product evolution and the product life cycle on strategy Achieving above-average performance and excellence Summary 387 390 396 423 425 427 427 427 428 438 447 461 463 465 474 478 484 489 493 495 497 497 497 498 500 505 510 515 517 518 520 522 523 528 528 534 Stage Three: How might
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
At one point in life, at a young age or as a resident in an elderly home, the question of who am I will arise. It is a convoluted mesh of thoughts and feelings that a person will go through before coming up with an answer. Some people may even experience cognitive dissonance in trying to explain different stages of life, while others will be comfortable in responding instantaneously with minimal cognition. In going through this process and drawing up the Ã¢â¬Ëwho am IÃ¢â¬â¢ and individual is further confronted with others peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perception. Where does this lead, when presented with otherÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, and what is it based it on? Response from outside sources is mainly based on perspective concerning an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Enough to understand the reason behind the varying approaches used in studying personality. As analyzed by Feist Feist (2009), theorists who lean toward the quantitative side of psychology such as behaviorists, social learning theorists, and trait theorists tend to differ in personality and further account for the fundamental disagreements between those inclined toward the clinical and qualitative side of psychology such as psychoanalysts, humanists, and existentialists. In considering a theoretical approach in the study of personality, theories brought forth due to these differences are the following: psychoanalytic, behavioral, cognitive, humanistic, and neurobiological theories. The scientific process may be influenced by the personal characteristics of the scientist, but the ultimate usefulness of the scientific product is and must be evaluated independently of the process (Feist Feist, 2009, p. 8). In using any of the five theoretical approaches in studying personality, an individual must then consider the factors involved and decide upon which approach to adopt. When deciding on a psychoanalytic approach, for example, a person is going to be looking into personality as it is influenced by childhood experiences and the unconscious mind. On how these experiences are engrained and are manifested on personality throughout life. In a behavioral approach,Show MoreRelatedAssessment of Gordon Gekkos Personality Using a Mbti Framework and Personality Type Theory2061 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesaim of this essay is to assess Gordon Gekko character Ã¢â¬Ës personality from an Oliver StoneÃ¢â¬â¢s Movie Ã¢â¬Å"The Wall street, Money Never SleepsÃ¢â¬ using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) framework and Personality Type Theory. THE MBTI The MBTI is an instrument designed to evaluate people and provide descriptive profiles of their personality types. It classifies people into sixteen broad and distinctive personality types based on Carl JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of perception and judgement. The MBTI model was developedRead MorePersonality Theory And Personality Theories1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Personality can be defined in many ways due to the individual and unique aspects of personality, and there is yet to be a definitive answer for what personality is and how it comes into being. Generally personality can be defined as the relatively constant, individual and unique characteristics and traits which present themselves to others in different circumstances. Due to the many unknown factors of personality psychologists have suggested many ways in which personality is created,Read MorePersonality Theory : Personality Theories2989 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages Personality Theories Personality Theories: Of the many varieties of personality theory on offer, do you think any offer distinct advantages over the others, and if so, why? The personality of the man has been under study since the existence of man himself. It has been hard to understand the human personality due to the fact that one man is different from another. There are different aspects of life that have made the study of the human personality to be a challenge. Such factors include cultureRead MoreTheories Of Personality And Personality Theory4645 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pagesinformative paper that explores theories of personality. The investigation that is included explains different views from past and present psychologists, from two different theories used in class during the semester. It is prevalent that a person development can suffer from behavioral and psychodynamic problems due to inconsistencies in their life growing up. This paper will discuss an eclectic view of ones personality in conjunct with a formulation of my own personality theory of development. Read MoreTheories Of Personality And Personality1039 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTheories of Personality At one point in life, at a young age or as a resident in an elderly home, the question of who am I will arise. It is a convoluted mesh of thoughts and feelings that a person will go through before coming up with an answer. Some people may even experience cognitive dissonance in trying to explain different stages of life, while others will be comfortable in responding instantaneously with minimal cognition. In going through this process and drawing up the Ã¢â¬Ëwho am IÃ¢â¬â¢ andRead MorePersonality Theory And Personality Theories3650 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesPersonality is the unique, relatively enduring internal and external aspects of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s character that influences behavior. Personality is something we deal with on a daily basis. We question people s behavior based on their motivations; like what childhood experiences did they go through to make them behave in a certain way. Many personality theorists present their own definitions of the word, personality, based on their own theoretical positions. These theorists try to explain peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s actionsRead MorePersonality Theory And Personality Theories1845 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIt is important for psychologists to understand the factors of personality to understand cognitive, emotional and behavioural characteristics required when treating clients. Personality is described as a range of characteristic that controls the way a person thinks, feels and acts that deliver coherence and direction in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. A group of theorists once said, Ã¢â¬Å"each of us is in a certain respect like all other people, like some other people and like no other person who has lived in the past orRead MoreTheories On Personality And Personality2396 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesMany psychologist have different theories on personality and how personalities develops from childhood to adulthood. Alfred Adler, Alderian Psychology focuses on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to compensate for their self-perceived inferiority to others. Erik Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. They all seem to play a part in the shaping of the social behavior of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personality, failure or success. Freud theory of personality reasons that the structures and conflicts in the humanRead MorePersonality And Theory Of Personality Essay2250 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesPersonality Examined Personality is deeply complexing subject that cannot be easily summed up. There is no concrete right answer, or only one way to evaluate any given subject, as every aspect of personality has more than one view point or angle. Famous psychologists such as Freud, Adler, Jung, Erickson, Eysenck, and Skinner all shaped and conducted the research that would come together and be taught to generations as the foundations of personality and the theory of personality. To better understandRead MoreThe Theories Of Personality Theories1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimportant theories regarding personality. Some of these theories are still relevant to our world today. These theories have helped form humans and they have also changed the way we think and the way we do things. There are many different forms of personality theories that have shaped the world for us: Biological, Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Humanist, Trait, etc. Biological theories are based on genetics and they believe that genetics are re sponsible for personality. Behavioral theories suggest that
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Since the beginning of time man has questioned life in repose of if they are free, why and because. The question of whether there is a clash between causal necessity and human freedom was taken up by many philosophers put their own spin on the idea. Through this short text we will discuss the own theories of Hobbes, Laplace, Sartre, and Freud. The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes provides the text of Freedom to Do What We Want, where he states his belief in the idea of free will, which is that we will are own person to be free. This philosopher believes in compatibilist, which is the conviction that free will and determinism are harmonious ideas, and that it is possible to believe both without being plausibly unreliable. Compatibilists believe freedom can be present or absent in positions for reasons that have nothing to do with metaphysics. Hobbes has traditional ideas such as what exists is matter and motion i.e. Atoms, and occurs with strict and mechanical laws, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s about it. His views concerned with virtue, aristocracy, and ideas of good government. Essentially that was him in a nutshell till he stumbled upon Euclid proof and changed his views since. With this proof, Hobbes transformed the view of modern science from Ã¢â¬Å"black magicÃ¢â¬ to more acceptable to the public and pursued by public. His theory is that fear drives human action, that we as individuals are free to do something as long as they will themselves to. Pierre Simon de Laplace a French mathematicianShow MoreRelatedA Comparison Of Determinism And Free Will Theory1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Magd Al Harbi A Comparison of Determinism Free Will Theory Kent State University Introduction One aspect of human existence that I think is particularly interesting is the extent of control of which we have over the decisions we make. In life, there are many decisions to be made, from simple ones that seem almost subconscious to complex decisions that can take days to ponder on. There are decisions that we make that directly affect others, indirectly affect others, and decisionsRead MoreFree Will Vs. Determinism879 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFree Will vs. Determinism What determines and influences human behavior? Humans have been looking the answer for this question during several eras, thus they developed various theories attempting to explain human behavior. Determinism is the belief that one event is the consequence of a previous action, similar to a chain. According to some philosophers who support determinism, the will of an agent follows physical laws, and every action is explicable and predictable by physical conditions. By thisRead MoreDeterminism, Soft Determinism And Libertarianism982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeterminism supporters claim that all consequences are inevitable since conditions are met and nothing else would occur by any chances. And determinism could influence and controlling everything in the universe with causal laws. According to determinism, we could make predictions about the occurrences of certain events or actions of human beings. There three types of determinism that I will discuss in the following, the Hard determi nism, Soft determinism and Libertarianism. Hard determinism claimsRead MoreDeterminism And Its Effects On Society957 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeterminism claims that all events are inevitable to have certain results at the end, since conditions are met and nothing else would occur. And it could apply to everything in the universe with causal laws. With the discovering laws, we could make predictions. Over the years, there are more than one determinism been developed over time. Hard determinism claims all the actions of human beings or consequences of events are determined by external conditions, with such conditions satisfied there willRead MoreDeterminism of Human Behavior Essay1176 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDeterminism of Human Behavior Have you ever wondered why we do the things we do? Why might we get physical when we are angry? Why might we cry when weÃ¢â¬â¢re in pain? Why? What motivates us to behave the way we do in the numerous different situations we get ourselves into? Although there are many different answers that people could give us, there are two theories in particular that are highly debated with each other. One argument is that behaviour is determined throughRead MoreJohn Locke And John Chaffees Theory Of Philosophy1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbetween two extremes. John Locke developed his own theory of mind, which is often mentioned as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and self. Philosophers over the stretch of time have developed, and fine-tuned, their theories and conceptualized their own ideas on how and why all things in the universe work. From these different theories three examples of these ideas that stand out are determinism, compatibilism, and libertarianism. Determinism, defined by John Chaffee, is Ã¢â¬Å"The view that everyRead MoreThe True Nature Of Moral Responsibility936 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe theory that I find true to the true nature of moral responsibility and its relation to human freedom and determinism would be compatibilism. Compatibilism is the claim that we are both determined and that we have moral responsibility (Lawhead 120). It offers a solution to the free will problem. Free will goes along with determinism because of the moral responsibility and it is incompatibility between each other. We are still held responsible for our voluntary actions and our actions are stillRead MoreAnalysis Of The Philosophical Concepts Of Determinism And Free Will1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnalysis of Free Will The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy defines Ã¢â¬Å"free willÃ¢â¬ as the discretion to choose between varieties of courses of action.The debate and arguments that surround free will have occupied philosophers for many centuries. Many scholars believe that the concept of free will is connected to the concept of responsibility, guilt, sin and other judgments that apply to the actions that are freely chosen by people. Other philosophers also link free will to the concept of persuasionRead MoreThe Master Of Their Destiny1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespoint of view. It offers a point of view that states determinism is compatible with free will. Even though there are many arguments against this theory compatibilism offers people a alternative way of thinking, than that their life is already planned out for them out of their control. A compatibilist or also known as a soft determinist holds the belief that free will and determinism are evidently linked or are compatible with each other. Determinism states that every event is casually necessitated byRead MoreDeterminism Vs. Free Will893 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe future is already determined is known in philosophy as determinism.Ã There are various definitions of determinism available; but in this essay, I shall use the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy definition, which is Ã¢â¬Ëthe metaphysical thesis that the facts of the past, in conjunction with the laws of nature, entail every truth about the future This idea presents a difficult problem for the concept of free will:Ã how can we make free choices if all our actions are determined by the facts of the
The sun shines. The water glistens in the bright light. The wind swirls around me, unsettling the hot sand beneath my feet. We will write a custom essay sample on My Favorite Place in the World or any similar topic only for you Order Now I run to the ocean, disturbing the calm water as I dive in. The water surrounds me, engulfing me in its warmth. I am now at peace. For right now, at this moment, I am one with the water and the salt and the sand, and everything is okay. All my problems are washed away with the tide. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s just me and the ocean. Just me and the beach. Just me and my favorite place in the world. I cannot describe how much the ocean means to me. The waves, the sand, the sun, the water, the world deep beneath the surface that no human truly understands, everything about it just connects with me. I grew up with the ocean; it was on the shores that I took my first steps, learned to swim, and grew familiar with all the small creatures the dwell near the shore. No, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t entirely grow up on the beach, though I wish I had. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve lived since birth, in the Chicago land area. However, once a year my family has gathered in a beach house in North Carolina, right on the ocean, for a weeklong reunion. I treasured those precious seven days I had with my family on the beach, for that is all I got; seven days of pure happiness, and then I went back to my normal, beach-less life. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t get me wrong; I loved growing up in the city, but something about those weeks at the beach captured my heart and made me yearn for more. So many of my best childhood memories are centered on the shores of North Carolina. Surrounded by all my favorite people and things, there was never a dull moment. Though looking back it seems like we spent every waking moment on the beach and in the water, we also played games inside the beach house, or just hung out and talked while sitting on the porch, looking out at a beautiful beach sunset. When I was younger, no older than maybe six years old, I loved the waves. My cousins would be too scared to go near the big ones, preferring to stay near the shore. But as for me, the daredevil, I looked down upon the wimpy waves, wanting only the big ones that can only be found in deeper water. Once, a big storm hit our beach and all the strong men went out to try to conquer the 10 feet waves. I wanted so much to join them battle the sea. However, my mother would not let me go in. So instead, my cousins and I stayed on the porch watching, amazed at how the calm and peaceful ocean of the daytime could turn into such a monster. But the next morning, the sound of the calm waves crashing on the sandy shore greeted me as I first opened my eyes to the new day in paradise. The peaceful water I knew and loved had returned, waiting for me to go back in. Even the not so great things at the beach will grow on a person. For instance, the fact that sand gets everywhere may bother some people, but not me. And not just the places you would expect it to be, itÃ¢â¬â¢s everywhere. Even when you try so hard not to touch the sandy ocean floor, it gets in your swimsuit, the couch, the bed, and the floor. It just seems to follow you in the house, despite the many rugs feebly attempting the stop the sand at the front door. But while at any beach, you come to expect it. I not only came to live with sleeping with sand, but I also started to like it. I never had to leave the beach, even when I was sleeping. There are other down sides to being at the beach, but none of them bother me anymore. For example, no matter how much sunscreen you rub into your skin, you always seem to get sunburn somewhere. Or how it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter if you are dripping with bug spray at night, the mosquitoes attack you anyway. But even sunburn and mosquito bites canÃ¢â¬â¢t ruin my trips to the beach. After all, I am at my favorite place in the world. How to cite My Favorite Place in the World, Essay examples
Question: Case study Diane had obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) for 26 years, which she has now finally overcome. My earliest memory of the illness was when I was about eight years old. The symptoms were a fear of stepping on the pavement cracks. I don't know why, but it made me feel physically uncomfortable if I did it. "That was one ritual. Another ritual, which was a compulsion, was the fear that if I didn't say my evening prayers correctly and sincerely, my mother might be killed in a car accident. I took on this huge responsibility as a child for another person's life. "A lot of people know about the hand washing and the checking of things, but many people are unaware that OCD can also take a sinister angle, where you have a fear that you may harm your own children very violently. "When I had my fourth child I had intrusive thoughts (obsessions) that at bedtime that I would go to the children's bedrooms in my sleep, take out their dressing gown cords and strangle each one. This was horrendous to go through, because I didn't know whether I was going to do it or not- fortunately I did not ever harm my children "That was the obsession: the compulsion was to try to relieve some of the pain and terror that came from those thoughts. I would get out of bed, find their dressing gowns, take the cords out of the dressing gowns and tie them into as many knots as possible, so that I wouldn't be able to put the cords around their necks. "Then I'd go back to bed, but I still couldn't sleep. I would get out of bed again, get the cords, put them in a bag, seal the bag, and put the bag in a high cupboard. This would give a little relief, but it was still terrifying, I was exhausted. "After I saw my GP, I saw a consultant psychiatrist. I was put on antidepressants, which helped me enormously. Medication gave me the strength to sleep and eat well, so I could then have cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which is a psychological treatment that deals with the present. I was able to put my heart and soul into my own recovery. "I often used to ask myself what was wrong with my memory and why I couldn't remember whether the gas has been turned off, even though I'd checked it 13 times and I only checked 10 seconds ago. In fact, people with OCD have a perfectly accurate memory, but what we don't have is a confident memory. CBT can help to restore that." I am worried that my eldest child has OCD they are showing a lot of the behaviours I displayed , I wonder if they have inherited the condition or learnt it from me? Answer: Introduction: Optimal treatment for most people with obsessive compulsive disorder requires a good combination of treatments that includes psychological counselling sessions, behavioural therapy, medication, social and cognitive development therapies and much more. In case of Mrs.Diane, both medication and psycho-therapy were given to overcome with the situation which persisted for 26yrs.if we review the complete treatment regime and its outcomes, it shows that exposure with anti-depressants and CBT were highly effective in tumbling the symptoms of the disease. In the following report we can evaluate the contribution of various psychological aspects in the treatment of indistinct behaviours, states of perception and emotional state of mind that were associated with the condition of Mrs.Diane. (Abramowitz, 1997) Main body: Analysing the psychological effects of treatment given to Mrs.Diane, we can evaluate the progress of psycho-therapy that had commenced a synchronised effort in treating a chronic illness. Here we discuss about the effects of psycho-therapy in various dimensions like treating specific behaviours of the patient, its state of perception that includes emotions and conflicts. CBT and medicines like anti-depressants are safest and most effective initial treatment considered by the psychotherapists for such type of patients, they first need to be motivated so as to comply with psycho-therapy. Many patients have the risk of suicide and self-injurious behaviour or the risk to harm their family members like in case of mrs.diane. In such cases it becomes important to enhance safety of the patient and others too. Psychotherapy contributes to a great extent in these conditions.it helps to change the patients state of mind and alters emotions to reduce the crucial symptoms. (Anon, 2016). Many a times OCD is characterized with incorrect or wrong cognitions. Its sufferers carry a high posibility of danger to conditions which are actually harmless but they have a threat in mind that they are performing something wrong. They also misinterpret how bad the things can happen and upto what severity. For such kind of elevated OCD related stress, several behavioural interventions were developed which later proved to be quiet successful. Psychotherapy plays a very major role in treating these types of mental, social, and physical well-beings. (Anon, 2016). Once the patient is capable of quickly identifying the obsessions and compulsions, the psychotherapist will initiate a few behavioral experiments to lessen the effect of inaccuracies in thinking about the etiology and effects. The medical practitioner may then practice the outcomes of the experiment done on the patient as substantial for discussion about other types of creative thinking. With the passage of treatment and time, patient learn to recognize and re-estimate truths about the potential results of engaging in or coming out from those behaviors and consequently begin to diminish the level of compulsions to a great extent. (Van Oppen, 1995) The perceptive therapy designed to help the patients suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder chiefly helps in identifying these automatically generated unrealistic thoughts and confusions, thus changing their interpretations regarding those thoughts and their meanings that results in decreased fretfulness and lessened compulsions. In the initial stage of intellectual therapy, patients are trained to develop a wakefulness of their uncertainties and threats as obsessions and compulsions. The sufferer is usually asked to track a record of those unrealistic thoughts and situations in a diary which is known as an alleged record. In this, the patient pens down fascinations and the interpretations related with the obsession. Some Significant information to record may contain what activity the patient was performing when the obsession started, what all occurred during that period, the meaning ascribed to the obsession, and what the patient did in response to overcome that situation. The therapist will do the assessment of that particular record with the patient and will check how that situation was handled. Using moderate thinking and questioning, the therapist will verbally examine an impractical belief. This helps the patient to identify the neurological changes, typically a mis-interpreted assessment of danger, a decreased sense of responsibility, or fears that thinking something critical will make it really happen (thought-action combination). The patient is trained to maintain the social and emotional balance of thoughts in public and in personal so as to cope-up with emotional states of mind. Another measure towards improvement includes the involvement of good company, positive thoughts and engagement with people on different issues so as to keep one involved. This can help to avoid unnecessary development of unrealistic or inconsequential thoughts. The most fruitful treatment of OCD is supposed to be EX/RP (exposure and ritual prevention) which has many times proved its effectiveness in reducing symptoms of OCD patients. Treated patients achieved significantly good and meaningful reductions in their OCD and depressive symptoms following this therapy. (Franklin, 2000) The psychological view points in the treatment of neurological disorders involve an excessive involvement of psychotherapy. Numerous psychological studies that investigate the accuracy of psychological treatments for this particular disease have employed different methods of evaluating the clinical significance of treatment effects. (Fisher, 2005) The patient who undergo a progression of CBT, notice a marked improvement in most of the cases. Although the Symptoms does not go completely but usually the most visible symptoms becomes remarkably low as compared to previous situations. Many patients have found CBT very stressful and therefore do no go with it. Therefore it is generally stated to accompany medication along with the therapy to gain progressive results in the patient. These bring the symptoms under control in most of the patients adding to their psychological needs too. (Huppert, 2005) Conclusion: From all of the above mentioned text it is clearly understood that psychotherapy or psychological perspectives largely affect the mental and social well-being of the patient and also help in the assessment of specific behaviors and different states of mind of the patient during the treatment. References: Abramowitz, J. (1997). Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A quantitative Review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(1), pp.44-52 Anon, (2016). [Online] Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov NCBI Literature PubMed Central (PMC) by EB Foa - 2010 [Accessed 17 Jan. 2016]. Anon, (2016). [Online] Available at: https://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/site wide/practice.../ocd by LM Koran - 2010 [Accessed 17 Jan. 2016]. Van Oppen, P., De Haan, E., Van Balkom, A., Spinhoven, P., Hoogduin, K. and Van Dyck, R. (1995). Cognitive therapy and exposure in vivo in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy, 33(4), pp.379-390) Franklin, M., Abramowitz, J., Kozak, M., Levitt, J. and Foa, E. (2000). Effectiveness of exposure and ritual prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Randomized compared with nonrandomized samples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), pp.594-602. Fisher, P. and Wells, A. (2005). How effective are cognitive and behavioral treatments for obsessivecompulsive disorder? A clinical significance analysis. Behavior Research and Therapy, 43(12), pp.1543-1558. Huppert, J. and Franklin, M. (2005). Cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: An update. Current Psychiatry Reports, 7(4), pp.268-273.